Climate regulates water availability in the Mediterranean region to a large degree; here the climate is characterized by an accentuated summer drought and seasonal rainfall, with strong inter- and intra-annual variability. Mediterranean ecosystems are limited by these arid conditions, to which is added climate change, recent changes in land use, and other human pressures. As a result, many rivers do not even comply with minimum ecological flow regimes and cannot meet the current demands of ecosystems or society. If we add to the pressures on these river basins the mosaic landscape that characterizes the Mediterranean, we find that many conflicts are being generated between the needs of ecosystems, people and economic actors.For this reason, we need integrated water and land management to ensure good ecosystem quality and promote responsible use of these resources. Such management must integrate different perspectives and needs and must be designed in a participatory, technologically-open, and integrative manner. Only this way is it possible to deal with conflicts, seek consensual solutions, propose political measures, and create sustainable water management strategies.
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